Shortened internodes of the shoot lead to a stunted appearance. Splits and hollow lesions occur in stems and truncs.
Made worse by
Sandy soils. Alkaline soils. Soils low in organic matter. High levels of nitrogen. High levels of calcium. Cold wet weather. Periods of drought.
Better crop establishment and reduced plant losses over winter. Increases nutrient levels in the crop for better spring regrowth. Improved flowering and more even maturity. Boosts grain yield and oil content of seed.